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Regulation and Implications

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  1. 2023 Guan J, Li Fx, Kang D, Anderson T, Pitcher T, Dalrymple-Alford J, Shorten P and Singh-Mallah G, Cyclic Glycine-Proline (cGP) Normalises Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) Function: Clinical Significance in the Ageing Brain and in Age-Related Neurological Conditions. Molecules 10.3390/molecules28031021.

  2. 2016 Costales J, and Kolevzon A, The Therapeutic Potential of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 in Central Nervous System Disorders. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 63: 207–222. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.01.001.

  3. 2014 Guan J, Gluckman PD, Yang PZ, Krissansen G, Sun K, Zhou Y, Wen JY, Shorten P, Wake G, Mcmahon CD, Thomas MF, Philip G, Chen W, S Moon, A Ren and Liu DX, Cyclic Glycine-Proline regulates IGF-1 homeostasis by altering the binding of IGFBP-3 to IGF-1. Scientific Report, 4, 4388.

  4. 2012 Juan E Puche and Inma Castilla-Cortázar Human conditions of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency. Journal of Translational Medicine, 10:224


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  1. 2021 Kang D, Waldvogel H, Fan D, Wang A, Faull R, Curtis M, Shorten P and Guan J. The autocrine regulation in human brain of Alzheimer’s diseases. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2021 May;127:105191. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2021.10519.

  2. 2020 Fan D, Pitcher T, Dalrymple-Alford J, MacAskill M, Anderson T and Guan J. Plasma cGP/IGF-1 molar ratio is associated with cognitive status of Parkinson disease. Alzheimer’s Dement. 2020;1–10. https://doi.org/10.1002/dad2.12025

  3. 2019 Fan D, Krishnamurthi R, Harris P, Barber PA, Guan J. Plasma cyclic glycine proline/IGF-1 ratio predicts clinical outcome and recovery in stroke patients. Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2019;0. doi:10.1002/acn3.743.

  4. 2018 Fan D, Alamri Y, Liu K, MacAskill M, Harris P, Brimble M, et al. Supplementation of Blackcurrant Anthocyanins Increased Cyclic Glycine-Proline in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Parkinson Patients: Potential Treatment to Improve Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Function. Nutrients 2018;10:714. doi:10.3390/nu10060714.

  5. 2017 Yang P, Waldvogel H, Scott E, Faull R, Dragunow M, Turner C, and Guan J. Endothelial degeneration of Parkinson disease is related to alpha-synuclein aggregation. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease & Parkinsonism 7: 370. doi: 10.4172/2161-0460.1000370.

  6. 2017 Yang P, Waldvogel H, Faull R, Dragunow M, Turner C, and Guan J. Vascular remodelling is impaired in Parkinson’s diseases. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease & Parkinsonism 7: 313. doi: 10.4172/2161-0460.1000313.

  7. 2016 Guan J, Yang P, Turner C,  Nicholson LFB, Faull R, Dragunow M and Waldvogel H Vascular degeneration of Parkinson diseases. SciRes Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Diseases 2016;1(1): 013-017

  8. 2015  Guan J, Harris P, Brimble M, Lei Y, Lu J, Yang Y and J Gunn A, The role for IGF-1 derived small neuropeptides as a therapeutic target for neurological disorders. Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets. Invited review 2015 Feb 5:1-9

  9. 2014 Mathai S, Gunn AJ, Brimble MA, Harris PW and Guan J. Neuroprotection with Glycin-2methyl-Proline-Glutamate (G-2mPE) after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in adult rats. Journal of Experimental Stroke Translational Medicine 6: 1-11

  10. 2013 Guan J, Matai S, Liang HP and Gunn JA Insulin-like growth factor-1 and its derivatives: Potential pharmaceutical application for treating neurological conditions. Recent Patents on CNS drug discovery 2013 8(2) 142-168.

  11. 2010 Guan J Insulin-Like Growth Factor -1 (IGF-1) Derived Neuropeptides, a Novel Strategy for the Development of Pharmaceuticals for Managing Ischemic Brain Injury. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2010 Mar 4 17(4) 250-5.

  12. 2010 Guan J, Zhang R, L Dale Gandar and Vickers M.  NNZ-2591, a novel diketopiperazine, prevented scopolamine-induced acute memory impairment in the adult rat. Beh Brain Research 210, 221-228.

  13. 2009 Guan J and Gluckman P. Endogenous small neuropeptides and their analogues: a novel strategy for the development of pharmaceuticals for neurological conditions. invited review by British Journal of Pharmacology 157, 881-891.

  14. 2009 Shapira S, Mathai S, Zhang R and Guan J   Delayed peripheral administration of the N-terminal tripeptide of IGF-1 (GPE) reduces brain damage following microsphere induced embolic damage in young adult and aged rats. Neuroscience Letter 454 (1) 53-57.

Research Cont.

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  1. 2008 Jacobson L, Zhang R, Elliffe D, Chen C, Mathai S, Mccarthy D, Waldvoge H and Guan J. Co-relation of cellular/vascular changes and spatial memory during aging in rats Experimental Gerontology 43, 928-938.

  2. 2008 Guan J Insulin-like growth factor-1 and its derivatives: potential pharmaceutical application for ischemic brain injury. Recent Patents on CNS Drug Discovery 3(2):112-27.

  3. 2007 Guan J, Mathai S, Harris P, Brimble M, Wen JY Zhang R and Gluckman P Peripheral administration of a novel diketopiperazine, NNZ 2591 prevents brain injury and improves somatosensory-motor function following hypoxia-ischemia in adult rats. Neuropharmacolocy 53: 749-762.

  4. 2007 Svedin P, Guan J*(co-responding author), Mathai S, Zhang R, Wang XY, Hagberg H and Mallard C Delayed peripheral administration of a GPE analogue induces astrogliosis and angiogenesis and reduces inflammation and brain injury following hypoxia-ischemia in the neonatal rat. Developmental neuroscience 29: 393-402.

  5. 2004 Guan J, Thomas G B, Lin H, Matai S, Bachelor D C, George S, Fernandez J and Gluckman PD Neuroprotective effects of the N-terminal tripeptide of insulin-like growth factor –1, glycine-proline-glutamate (GPE) following intravenous infusion in hypoxic-ischemic adult rats. Neuropharmacology Vol 47 (6): 892-903.

  6. 2004 Krishnamurthi R, Stott S, Maingay M, Faull RLM, Mccarthy D, Gluckman PD and Guan J.  N-terminal tripeptide of insulin-like growth factor –1 (GPE) improves functional deficits after 6-OHDA lesion in rats. NeuroReport 15(10); 1601-1604.

  7. 2003 Guan J, Bennet L PD Gluckman and Gunn AJ, Insulin-like growth factor-1 and the ischemic brain.  Progress in Neurology 70 (6), 443-462.

  8. 2001 Guan J, Gunn AJ, Sirimanne S, Tuffin J, Gunning M, Clark R and Gluckman PD. The window of opportunity for neuronal rescue with insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in rats is critically modulated by cerebral temperature during recovery. Journal Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 20(2) 513-519, 2001.

  9. 1999, Guan J, Waldvogel H, Faull R, Gluckman P and Williams C The effects of the N-terminal tripeptide of insulin-like growth factor-1, glycine-proline-glutamate in different regions following hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in adult rats. Neuroscience 89: 649-659.

  10. 1999, Saura J, Gatti S, Skinner S, Curatolo L, Peeters C, Williams C, Guan J, Dragunow M, Post C and Gluckman P Neuroprotective effects of Gly-Pro-Glu, the N-terminal tripeptide of IGF-1 in the hippocampus. NeuroReport 10:161-164.

  11. 1998, Gluckman, P.D.  Guan, J., Williams, C., Scheepens, A., Zhang, R., Bennet, L. and Gunn, A.  Asphyxial brain injury - the role of the IGF system.  Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 140, 95-99.

  12. 1996, Guan J, Williams CE, Skinner SJM, Mallard EC and Gluckman PD   The effects of IGF 1, IGF 2 and des IGF 1 on neuronal loss after hypoxic ischemic brain injury in adult rats: evidence for a role for IGF binding proteins. Endocrinology 137(3): 893-898.

  13. 1993, Guan J, Williams CE, Gunning M, Mallard EC and Gluckman PD   The effects of IGF 1 treatment after hypoxic ischemic brain injury in adult rats. J Cereb Blood Flow Metabolism 13:609 616.

  14. 1993, Gluckman PD, Guan J, Beilharz EJ, Klempt ND, Klempt M, Miller O, Sirimanne E, Dragunow M and Williams CE   The role of the insulin like growth factor system in neuronal rescue. Ann N Y Acad Sci 692:138 148.

  15. 1992, Gluckman PD, Klempt ND, Guan J, Mallard EC, Sirimanne E, Dragunow M, Klempt M, Singh K, Williams CE and Nikolics K   A role for IGF 1 in the rescue of CNS neurons following hypoxic ischemic injury. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 182:593 599

Post Pregnancy / Lactational Research

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  1. 2021 Singh-Mallah G, Ardalan M, Singh K, Kang D, Mcmahon C, Mallard C and Guan J. Maternal cyclic glycine proline administration improves memory, astrocyte-associated vascular remodelling and glutamate trafficking in the hippocampus of adult offspring in rats. Nutriti Neurosci 27;1-11.doi: 10.1080/1028415X.

  2. 2018 Guan J, Singh-Mallah G, Liu K, Shorten P, Thompson J, Mitchell E, Taylor R, Harris P, Brimble M, Thorstensen E and Murphy R. The role for autocrine regulation of IGF-1 in pregnancy related obesity, a potential biomarker for weight changes.  Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic agents 32(3): 11-25.

  3. 2017 Singh-Mallah G, McMahon CD, Guan J and Singh K Cyclic-glycine-proline promotes post-lactational involution in mammary glands of rats through inhibiting IGF 1 function. Journal of Cellular Physiology 232 (12) 3369-3383doi: 10.1002/jcp.25782.

  4. 2016 Singh-Mallah G, Singh K, McMahon CD, Harris P, Brimble MA and Guan J, Maternal-infantile transfer following oral administration of cyclic-glycine-proline in lactating rats and its effect on improving memory in the offspring. Endocrinology 157(8):3130-9.

  5. 2016 Gagandeep Singh-Mallah, Kuljeet Singh, Christopher D. McMahon, Paul Harris, Margaret A. Brimble, Eric Thorstensen, Jian Guan, Maternally Administered Cyclic Glycine-Proline Increases Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Bioavailability and Novelty Recognition in Developing Offspring, Endocrinology, Volume 157, Issue 8, Pages 3130–3139, https://doi.org/10.1210/en.2016-1189

  6. 2015 Guillermo R, Yang P, Zhang R, Vickers M, McJarrow P And Guan J. Supplementation of complex milk lipids during brain development promoted neuroplasticity but did not alter myelination and vascular density. Food and Nutrition Research 2015, 59: 25765.

  7. 2015 Guan J, MacGibbon A, Fong B, Zhang R, Liu K, Rowan A and McJarrow P. Long-term Supplementation of BSC, a Complex of Milk Lipids, During Post-natal Brain Development Improves Memory in rats. Nutrients 2015, 7, 4526-4541; doi:10.3390/nu7064526 (special issue: Nutrition in cognitive function).

  8. 2010 Gustavsson M, Hodgkinson S, Fong B, Norris C, Guan J, Krageloh C, Breier BH, Davison M, McJarrow P, Vickers MH. Maternal supplementation with a complex milk lipid during pregnancy and lactation alters neonatal brain lipid composition but has no effect on cognitive function in normal adult male rat offspring. Nutrition Research 30(4):279-89.

  9. 2009 Vickers MH, Guan J, Gustavsson M, Krägeloh CU, Breier BH, Davison M, Fong B, Norris C, McJarrow P, Hodgkinson SC Supplementation with a mixture of complex lipids derived from milk to young rats results in improvements in parameters related to growth and cognition. Nutrition Research 29, 423-435.

Metabolic Health Research

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  1. 2019 Li FX, Liu K, Gray C, Harris P, Reynolds C, Vickers M and Guan J. Cyclic glycine-proline normalizes systolic blood pressure in high-fat diet-induced obese male rats. Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases. 30: 339-346.

  2. 2019 Li FX, Liu K, Wang A, Harris P, Vickers M and Guan J. Cyclic Glycine-Proline Administration Normalizes High-Fat Diet-Induced Synaptic Expressions in Obese Rats. Neuropeptides 76, 101935, 10.1016/j.npep.2019.05.006.